The United States has reached a deal with Germany to prevent Russia from using its Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline as political leverage over Europe.
The near-complete 1,230km pipeline under the Baltic Sea will double Russian gas exports to Germany.
Under the agreement, Berlin has pledged to respond to any attempt by Russia to use energy as a weapon against Ukraine and other Central and Eastern European countries.
Ukraine says the Nord Stream 2 pipeline threatens its security.
However, Russia denies this and describes the project as commercially beneficial for all involved.